Monday, October 12, 2009

Mechanical Instability of Gold Nanoparticles during Mercury Amalgamation

Mechanical Instability of Gold Nanoparticles during Mercury Amalgamation

Gold exhibits a strong affinity for mercury, and is, for that reason, frequently used as an electrode material for mercury detection. In light of the current trend towards ever smaller and thinner electrode surfaces, we were interested in the effects of detecting large concentrations of mercury on micro scale gold surfaces. Electrochemically saturating gold microparticles with mercury results in a 9-fold increase in volume and, in some cases, loss of electrical contact with the underlying glassy carbon spheres. Subsequent stripping of the mercury from the gold microparticles dramatically alters both the morphology and the composition of the microparticles. Understanding this mechanical instability will help to overcome one of the unique pitfalls of using micro scale gold surfaces in mercury detection.


What has motivated you to conduct this work?

We have long been interested in the creation of electrochemical sensors for heavy metal detection. My group has investigated detection of metals ranging from arsenic, particularly apposite considering the incidence of chronic arsenic poisoning from ground water in Bangladesh, to manganese to mercury. Coming at this topic from the other direction, my group has also done considerable work in nanoparticles and designer electrode surfaces. I anticipated that mercury's affinity for gold, which can be a problem in terms of long-term viability of even bulk gold electrodes, would have interesting ramifications on the micro scale.

Where do you see this work developing in the future?

The composition of an electrode surface obviously has a great impact on the processes observed. Micro- and nanoparticle decorated carbonaceous material presents a rich mine of material for future research, with potential applications in more fields than that of pure chemistry.

Are there any particular challenges facing future research in this area?


The challenges facing this particular area of research mostly stem from the relative novelty of the field. Micro- and nanoparticles are still a young technology, and, as this article demonstrates, they do not behave identically to their bulk counterparts. Assumptions about their properties, whether intrinsic or in relationship to certain applications, can result in wasted time, but I am confident that further exploration of the field will pave the way to a better understanding of micro- and nanoparticles and their uses.

A new dimensionless number highlighted from mechanical energy exchange during running

A new dimensionless number highlighted from mechanical energy exchange


This study aimed to highlight a new dimensionless number from mechanical energy transfer occurring at the centre of gravity (Cg) during running. We built two different-sized spring–mass models (SMM #1 and SMM #2). SMM #1 was built from the previously published data, and SMM #2 was built to be dynamically similar to SMM #1. The potential gravitational energy (EP), kinetic energy (EK), and potential elastic energy (EE) were taken into account to test our hypothesis. For both SMM #1 and SMM #2, NMo–Dela=(EP+EK)/EE reached the same mean value and was constant (4.1±0.7) between 30% and 70% of contact time. Values of NMo–Dela obtained out of this time interval were due to the absence of EE at initial and final times of the simulation. This phenomenon does not occur during in vivo running because a leg muscle's pre-activation enables potential elastic energy storage prior to ground contact. Our findings also revealed that two different-sized spring–mass models bouncing with equal NMo–Dela values moved in a dynamically similar fashion. NMo–Dela, which can be expressed by the combination of Strouhal and Froude numbers, could be of great interest in order to study animal and human locomotion under Earth's gravity or to induce dynamic similarity between different-sized individuals during bouncing gaits.




Mechanical Support of the Circulation: A New Approach

Abstract

A new technique of circulatory support by total left ventricular bypass is presented. Ten large, conditioned dogs had total circulatory support for four hours with pulsatile flow. Since the right ventricle and lungs were not bypassed, no oxygenator was needed. The various physiologic parameters measured changed very little. The arterial and venous pressures, vascular resistance, and flow from the pump remained constant. Arterial pH, oxygen pressure (PO2), carbon dioxide pressure, and lactate, and the venous PO2 stayed within the normal range. Average hemolysis was only 14.5 mg/100 cc/hr and the urine output was 19 cc/hr. The technique was used successfully in one patient.

Thursday, October 8, 2009

PERUSVAATIMUKSET ILMASTOINTIHUOLTO


JÄRJESTELMÄ SUUNNITTELUKILPAILUA


INIRODUCTION


Ilmastointi-järjestelmän suunnittelu on laaja ja joskus

monimutkaista alalla monien Aspect harkita ja monia

vaihtoehtoja valittavissa olevan lopullisen järjestelmän

tietyn project.Air conditioning on malli on enemmän kuin

pelkkä tekninen toimenpide, ja jotta Design lentoliikenteen

conditioning järjestelmän meidän on ymmärrettävä, mitä

ilmastointi on, mitä asiakkaiden tarpeet ovat, mitä

rajoituksia on ohjelman suunnittelusta ja mitä arkkitehti

yritämme saavuttaa. Tämä tarkoittaa, että meidän on

tiedettävä, teknisten näkökohtien ilmastointi käyttöönottoa

sekä vaikutus suunnittelua muiden jäsenten projektiryhmä.

Suunnitteluprosessiin liittyy sekoitetaan teknisten

ihmissuhde-ja johtamistaidot. Tätä paperi kattaa tyypillinen

ilmastointi järjestelmän suunnitteluvaiheessa.

Niin miten voimme mennä noin suunnittelussa

Ilmastointijärjestelmien? ennen kaikkea meidän on

ymmärrettävä. Mitä ilmastointi on.

Teknisen puolen

Ilmastointi on hoidossa ympäristölle saavuttaa joukko

vaaditaan conditioning alalla rakennuspalvelujen se yleensä

liittyy ilman tarjoamalla mukavuudet Saat rakennuksen

asukkaat mutta myös muissa tilanteissa, kuten kaasutuksen ja

erikoisammattitutkintojen varastointi ympäristöissä. Esitystä

käsitellään vain kohtelu ilmaa Mukavuudet olosuhteissa.

Ympäristön tila, joka on jollakin tietyllä suunnittelu,

voivat olla muun muassa:

Ø Kuiva polttimo lämpötila Ų Kosteus sisältö ilmassa (kosteus, sekä suhteellisesti että

absolutes)

Ø Air liikkeet

Ø Ilmanlaatu


Tarve valvoa näitä muuttujia ja tarkastuskohteiden on

perustuttava Asiakkaat vaatimukset. Esimerkiksi, jos tehtaan

omistaja haluaa tarjota joitakin rajoitettuja Cooling niiden

tehtaalta. Sitten kuiva polttimo lämpötilan valvonta on melko

laaja valikoima todennäköisesti riittää. Jos kuitenkin

lääkealan valmistukseen haluaa tarjota sopivia edellytys

heidän valmistusprosessi, meidän olisi tarpeen valvonnan

kaikkien edellä mainittujen muuttujien lähellä

suvaitsevaisuutta. Ilman laatu on valvonnan

suodatusjärjestelmän, ja ilmaa ohjataan jakeluverkkoon. Nämä

näkökohdat Ilmastointijärjestelmien suunnittelu kannattaa

erillinen keskustelu ja siellä oma paperi. Aiomme tarkastella

valvonnasta lämpötilan ja kosteuden valvonta vain.

HYÖDYLLISENÄ auttaa havainnollistamaan valvonta lämpötilan ja

kosteuden valvonta on psykometrisessa kaavion. Ilmakehän ilma

on sekoitus ilman ja veden vapour.The psykometrisessa kaavio

on grafiikka näyttää eri pitoisuus kosteuden ilmasta ja

assosioituneiden lämpötila, tiheys ja energian sisältö.

Tehtäväksi ilmastointi järjestelmä on valvoa lämpötilaa ja

kosteutta sisältö ilmaan yksi tai useampi seuraavista

prosessin.

Ø Lämmitys

Ø Cooling

Ø Dehumidification

Ø kostuttamiseen


Metabolinen Rate

Nopeutta, jolla laitos tuottaa lämpöä kutsutaan

aineenvaihdunta kiihtyy. Lämmön tuottaa jonka

normaalia tervettä henkilöä, kun taas nukkumismahdollisuudet

kutsutaan tyvi aineenvaihdunta kiihtyy, joka on

järjestyksessä 60W.The suurin arvo voi olla 10 kertaa paljon

kuin tämä henkilö harjoittaa jatkuvaa kovaa työtä.

Lämpötila kehon edelleen suhteellisen vakiona noin 36,9 C

(98,4) kudoksia tai ihon ja n. 37,2 C syvälle kudoksiin tai

ydin. on todettu, että kehon lämpötila aamulla jälkeen uni on

noin 0.5C pienempi kuin sen lämpötila iltapäivällä. Kun arvo on 40.5C (104.9F) katsotaan vakavasti ja 43.5C (110 f) on varmasti kohtalokas .. Human mukavuus vaikuttavat fysiologisten tekijä määräytyy korko lämmön sukupolvi on kehon ja oli lämmöntuotto, ympäristöä ULKOPUOLINEN DESIGN CONDITION: On havaittu, että on olemassa erilaisia sinimuotoisista suhde ilmaan kuiva polttimo lämpötilan ja auringon aikaa. Esimerkiksi silloin, kun kuukausi kesäkuuta tietyllä paikkakunnalla, jolla auringon nousua noin 5 am. ja auringonlaskun noin 7pm.the aikana alin lämpötila laskee noin 4 pm. eli whith Väliajat noin 12 tuntia. Mitä suhteellinen kosteus, se nähdään, että se saavuttaa vähintään arvo iltapäivällä. Koska keskimääräinen päivittäinen enintään kuiva polttimo lämpötila ilmenee välillä 1 pm., On kohtuullista olettaa, että vähintään suhteellinen kosteus voisi esiintyä samana aikana. Lyhyt historia KYLMÄLAITTEEN Tuotantomenetelmän kylmä mekaanisen prosessi on melko hiljattain. Pitkä jo vuonna 1748, William Coolen Glasgow'n yliopisto tuotettu jäähdytys luomalla osittaisen tyhjiön yli etyylieetteriä, mutta hän ei voinut toteuttaa kokemusta käytännössä. Ensimmäinen muutos tapahtui vuonna 1834, kun Perkins ehdotti käsin käytettäviä kompressori kone työskentelee eetteriin. Sitten in1851 tuli Gorrie s lentoliikenteen jäähdytys-koneen, ja in1856 Linde kehittänyt koneen työskentelevät ammoniakkia. Etenemistahti kehitys oli hidasta alussa, kun höyryveturi oli ainoa liikkeellepaneva tiedossa suorittaa kompressorit. With kynnyksellä sähkömoottori ja tästä nopeammasta kompressori, soveltamisala sovellusten jäähdytys widened.the vauhti kehitys oli huomattavasti quickened vuonna 1920 vuosikymmenen kun johtuu pont otettu markkinoille joukon uusia työtapoja aineita, fluori-kloori alkyylijohdannaisista metaania, etc.popularly tunnetaan kloori fluorihiilipolymeerit tai CFC-under nimi freonien, koska on todettu, että klooria atomien freonien ovat vastuussa ryöstökalastukseen otsonikerrosta ylempään ilmakehään. Vesi heikottaa absorptio koneeseen Carre.These kehitys huomioon suurten kaupallisten ja teollisten soveltaminen alalla jäähdytys. A ilmiötä kutsutaan Peltierin vaikutus havaittiin vuonna 1834, joka ei ole vielä kaupallistettu. Advances in cryogenics, kentän erittäin alhaisen lämpötilan jäähdytys, oli ilmoittautunut nesteyttävät happea, Pictet vuonna 1877.Dewar teki kuuluisan Dewar pullo 1898 varastoida nesteiden klo kryogeeniset lämpötiloissa. Sitten seurasi nesteyttävät muiden pysyvien kaasujen mukaan lukien helium vuonna 1908, jonka Ones joka johti löytämisen ilmiö suprajohtavuus. Lopuksi vuonna 1926, Giaque ja Debye itsenäisesti ehdotettu Adiabaattinen demagnetization on paramagneettinen suolaa päästä lämpötilat lähellä absoluuttista nolla Kaksi yleisin jäähdytys hakemuksen, viz., Ikkuna-tyyppi conditioner ja kotimaan jääkaappi, on kuvattu seuraavilla sivuilla. ROOM ilmastointi Juokseva luku osoittaa kaavamaisen kaavio tyypillinen ikkuna-tyypin huone ilmastointilaite, joka toimii periaatteen mukaisesti kuvattu alla: Katsovat, että huone pidetään vakiona lämpötilan 25C.In on ilmastointi, ilmaan huone on piirtänyt tuulettimen on läpäistävä yli jäähdytyskierukka, joiden pinnasta on säilytettävä sanoa, kun lämpötila on 10C . ohitettuasi yli kela, ilma on jäähtynyt (esimerkiksi 15C) ennen toimitetaan huoneeseen. Kun poimien huoneen lämpö, ilma on jälleen palata takaisin jäähdytyskierukka on 25C. Nyt, kun jäähdytyskierukka, neste työpäivän aine kutsutaan kylmäainetta, kuten CHCIF2 (monochloro-difluori metaani), joita kutsutaan myös Freon 22 kauppanimi, Kaavio on Room ilmastointijärjestelmää Tai yksinkertaisesti jäähdytysaine 22 (R22), anna lämpötilassa, sano, 5C ja höyrystyy, mikä absorboivan sen latentti höyrystymislämpö alkaen huoneen ilmaan. Tämä laitteita, joissa kylmäainetta haihtuu kutsutaan höyrystin. Kun haihtuminen, jäähdytysaine tulee vapour.To jotta se voi tiivistyä takaisin ja vapauttaa lämpöä, jonka se on absorboinut poistui huoneesta vaikka läpi höyry-painostustaan esittää kompressoriin. Seuraavista tämän korkean paineen heikottaa anna jäähdyttäjä. Kun kondensaattorit, ulkopuolelta ilmakehän ilmaa, sanoa, kun lämpötila on 45C kesällä, liikkuu jonka tuuletin. Kun piristymisen latenttia lämpöä kondensoitumisen alkaen tiivistyvä kylmäainetta ilmaa päästää sisään ympäristön sanoa, milloin lämpötila 55C.The kondensaatiota kylmäainetta toukokuu syntyä esimerkiksi, milloin lämpötila 60C Kun kondensoimalla, korkeassa paineessa nestemäisiä kylmäainetta alennetaan alhainen paine haihdutusyksikköä ajamalla sitä kautta painetta vähentävää laitetta kutsutaan laajentamiseen laitteeseen, ja näin kierre on saatu. A väliseinä erottaa korkean lämpötilan puolella jäähdyttimen peräisin matalalämpötilaisesta puolella haihdutusyksikköä Periaate toimii suurten ilmastointilaitteissa on myös sama, paitsi että jäähdyttäjä on vesi jäähdyttää sijaan, että ilma on jäähtynyt. Yksikkö Jäähdytys kapasiteetti: Standardin yksikön jäähdytys muodissa on ton jäähdytys tai yksinkertaisesti ton merkitty symbolilla TR.It vastaa tuotannon kylmä kurssiin, jossa lämpöä on irrottamista Yhdysvaltain sävy vettä 32 F jäädyttää sen lämpötila on 32 F yhdessä dayor 24 tuntia. Siten 1TR = 1 × 2,0001 b × 144Btu/1b 24 hrs = 12000 kJ / h = 200Btu/min jos latenttia lämpöä fuusio jäätä on toteutettu 144 Btu/1B.The aikavälin yksi tonni jäähdytys on siirtää siitä, kun jäätä käytetään jäähdytykseen. Yleisesti 1TR tarkoittaa aina 12000 BTU lämmön poistaminen per tunti, riippumatta siitä, mitä työ-aineen käyttöä ja käyttötilanteessa, viz, lämpötila kylmälaitteiden ja lämmön rejuction.This yksikön jäähdytys on tällä hetkellä käyttää Yhdysvalloissa, Isossa-Britanniassa ja Intiassa. monissa maissa, standardin MKS yksikkö kcal / h käytetään Se voidaan lähettää että 1TR = 12000 kJ / h. = 12000 = 3024 kcal / h 3,968 = 50kcal/min = 50 kcal / min Myös, koska 1Btu = 1.055kj, muunnettaessa ton vuonna vastaavaan SI-yksikkö on 1TR = 12000 × 1,055 = 12600 kJ / tuntia = 211 kJ / min = 3.5167K Design for ilmastointi on 4 m korkea-tarina toimitalo sijaitsee osoitteessa 30N leveyttä koskevan suunnitelman joka näkyy kuvassa seuraavat tiedot annetaan Kuva. Suunnitelma rakentaa esimerkiksi Kipsilevyruuvinväännin sisälle = 11/4cm Ulkomaailmaan muurin rakentamisen = 20cm betonilohkareeseen Väliseinä rakentaminen = 33cm tiili Katon rakentaminen = 20cm RCC levyjen kanssa 4cm asbestisementin aluksella Lattiarakenteisiin = 20cm konkreettisia Tiheydet, tiiltä = 2000kg/m3 Konkreettisia = 1900kg/m3 Kipsi = 1885kg/m3 Asbesti aluksella = 520kg/m3 Fenestration = 2m × 11/2m lasi (Weather stripattu loose fit) U = 5.9wm-2 k-1 Ovet = 11/2m × 2m puupaneeli U = 0,63 Wm-2 k-1 Outdoors suunnittelun edellytys = 43C DBT, 27C WBT Sisäuima suunnittelun ehto = 25C DBT, 50% RH Päiväkatsaus valikoima = 31c on 43C = 12C Varaukset = 100 Light = 15000 W fluoresoivia Omaksumat pass tekijä kelojen 0,15 Etsi huone järkevä ja latentti lämmön kuormia, ja myös grand yhteensä lämmön kuormituksella. Ratkaisu Thermal conductivities taulukosta 18.1 k lasi = 0,78 Wm-1 K-1 k konkreettisia = 1,73 Wm-1 K-1 k tiili = 1,32 Wm-1 K-1 k kipsi = 8,65 Wm-1 K-1 k asbestia = 0.154Wm-1 K-1 Oletettu elokuva kertoimet ƒ = 23 Wm-2 k-1 ƒi = 7 Wm-2 k-1 Ulkopuolella seinään 1 / U = 1 / 23 +0.1 / 1,32 +0.2 / 1.73 +1 / 7 +0.0125 U = 7 Wm-2 k-1 Väliseinä 1 / U = 1 / 7 +0.33 / 1.32 +1 / 7 +2 (0,0125) / 8,65 U = 1,86 Wm-2 k-1 Roof 1 / U = 1 / 23 +0.2 / 9 +0.04 / 0.154 +0.0125 / 8.65 +1 / 7 U = 2,13 Wm-2 k-1 Lattia 1 / U = 1 / 7 +0.2 / 9 Pinta-ala ja tilavuus tilaa A = (27) (17) = 459m2 V = (459) (4) = 1836m2 Ilmanvaihto korko toimikausi QV / hlö = 0,28 CMM (taulukko 16.2) Qv = 0,28 (100) = 28cmm Lukumäärä lentoliikenteen muuttuviin tuuletuksen lentoliikenteen (+28) (60)-1836 = 0.92 (tyydyttävä) Massa seinän pinta-alayksikköä kohti Ulkopuolella seinään: 0.2 (1900) + (2000) +0.0125 (1885) = 604 kg/m2 Väliseinä: 0.33 (2000) + 2 (0.0125) (1885) = 707 kg/m2 Katto: 0,2 (1900) + 0.04 (520) = 401 kg/m2 Oikaistaan vastaava lämpötila erilliskohtelun Päivittäisistä valikoima 12C = 12-11,1 = 0.45C 2 For (t-ti) ja 18C = 18-8,3 = 9.7C Yhteensä korjaus = -0,45 +9,7 = 9.25C Vastaava lämpötila ero C taulukossa 18.9 ja 18.10 ja Sisältävät korjaus: 2 p.m. 3 p.m. 4 illalla 5 p.m 6 illalla 7 p.m West seinään 14,4 14,8 15,2 16,5 17,5 Pohjois seinään 9,6 10,2 9,6 11,3 11,7 Etelä seinään 13,1 14,7 16,0 17,4 17,8 Roof (altistuvat) 24,0 25,8 28,0 29,7 30,5 30,2 __ Hinnat aurinko saada läpi lasi kesäkuuta 21 W/m2 taulukossa 17.8 (d) 2pm 3pm 4pm 5pm West lasi 309 451 508 492 Pohjois-lasi 44 44 51 91 Etelä-lasi 47 44 38 32 _____________________________________________________________ Ovi ala = 11 / 2 × 2 = 3m2 Lasi-alue Länsirannan lasi = 4 (2 x 11 / 2) = 12m2 Pohjoiseen lasi = 2 × 11 / 2 = 3m2 Etelän lasi = 2 (2 x 11 / 2) = 6m2 Ulkopuolella seinään alueilla West seinään = (27) (4) -12 = 96m2 Pohjois seinään = (10) (4) -3-3 = 34m2 Etelä-seinä = (17) (4) -3-6 = 59m2 Väliseinä ala Itään seinään = (27) (4) -3 = 105m2 Pohjois seinään = (7) (4) = 28m2 Arvioituna enintään jäähdytys kuormituksella: Edellä mainituista laskelman, on selvää, että suurin osa muuttuja Cooling kuormitukset aurinkoenergian ja lähetyksen lämmön paranemisesta länteen seinän ja lasi Ja katosta. Näistä lasin ja katon kuormia hallitseva kuormia. Katolla kuormitus Onko enintään 6 pm.when vastaava lämpötila erotusdiagnoosissa on 30.5C.The aurinko voitto kautta läntistä lasi on enimmäisarvoksi 508 w/m2 4 pm.Thus aika Enintään kuormien todennäköisimmin lähellä 5pm. Lämmön siirtyminen ala: Oletetaan, että lämpötilan ero 2,5 C koko lattia tuulen paine Oletetaan, että tuulen nopeudella KMP, olemme Δp = 0,00047 (15) = 0.11cm H2O Soluttautumisen verokantaa ikkunassa taulukosta 18.11 ja 0.11 tuulen paine = 2.5m3/h/m crack Pituus crack 7 ikkuna = 7 <2> = 49m SHL = 75W/person LHL = 55W/person Muut oletukseen Vasta 10% tarjonnan kaapelikanaviin ulkopuolella kunnossa tilaa Ei ole paluuta kaapelikanaviin ulkopuolella conditioned tilaa Tuulettimen hevosvoimaa, 5 prosenttia RSh Yksityiskohtaisesti jäähdytys kuormia laskettaessa esitetään laskelma arkin taulukossa Laskelma arkin fir jäähdytys kuorma estimointi Space käyttää toimisto Koko 27 × 17 = 459m2 × 4 = 1836m2 Arvio 5 pm PAIKALLINEN AIKA sunnuntai-AIKA HOURSE TOIMENPITEEN PÄIVÄ AIKA Edellytykset TE WB% RH DPn h, kJ / kg kg / kg Outdoors 43 27 29 21,3 85.0 0.016 ROOM 25 18 50 15,7 50,85 0,01 Erotus 18 34.15 0.006 Ulkoilma 100 KANSANTASAVALLAN × 0.28cmm/PERSON = 28cmm TUULETUS CMM = 28 Swinging REVOLVING____________PEOPLE ×___________ CMM / hlö = CMM OVET AVO 3 OVET × 1.9813cmm/DOOR = 17.8cmm OVET EXAUST _____________________________________________= CMM FAN Crack 49m × 2.5/60 CMM / m³ 2.0cm Soluttautumisen cm LOAD LASKUTOIMITUSTEN ITEM HALLINTOMENOT tai Sun voitto tai tekijä W MÄÄRÄT TEMP.DIFF.OR Kosteus JM. Sensible LÄMMÖN Auringon säteily-LASI EAST lasikuitufilamentista m2 ___ ___ ___ WEST LASI 12m2 492 __ 5900 NORTH LASI 3m2 91 __ 270 ETELÄ LASI 6m2 32 __ 190 SKY VALO-m2 __ __ __ SOLAR TRANSMITION tuottoja-seinät ja katto EAST WALL-m2 __ ___ ___ WEST WALL 96m2 16,5 3,5 5540 NORTH WALL 34m2 11,3 3,5 1345 ETELÄ WALL 59m2 17,4 3,5 3590 ROOF-SUN 459m2 29,7 2,13 29,035 ROOF-Varjostetut-m2 __ __ __ TRANSMITION tuottoja-OTHERS OVET 9m2 18 0.63 100 KAIKKI LASI (12 +3 +6) m2 18 5.9 2230 -Osio (108 +28) m2 15,5 1,86 3930 ENIMMÄISMÄÄRÄ-m2 __ __ __ FLOOR 459 2.5 6.05 6940 Soluttautumisen 19.8cmm 18 20.4 7270 SISÄASIOIDEN LÄMMÖN tuottoja PEOPLE 100 __ 75 7500 POWER __ __ __ __ LIGHT 15000 __ 1,25 18750 LAITTEET __ __ __ __ LISÄPÖYTÄKIRJA __ __ __ __ _________________ SUB TATAL 92690 VARASTOINTI (laiminlyödyistä) __ __ __ __ TURVALLISUUS Tekijä 5% 4635 ROOM Sensible LÄMMÖN 103090 TOIMITTAMISLUOKITTELU kaapelikanaviin TOIMITTAMISLUOKITTELU kaapelikanaviin LÄMMÖN tuottoja 0,5% + vuoto O.5% + Fan 5% 5560 HP Ulkoilma BY Passed 28cmm 18C 20,4 × 0,15 1540 EFECTIVE ROOM Sensible LÄMMÖN 104425 Latent LÄMMÖN Soluttautumisen 19.8cmm 0,006 50000 5940 IHMISET 100 --- 55 5500 LÄMPÖ - - - -- LAITTEET - - - -- LISÄPÖYTÄKIRJA - - - -- Höyryn TRANS - - - -- _________________________ SUB YHTEENSÄ 11440 Varmuuskerroin 5% 570 ROOM Latent LÄMMÖN 12010 SUPLY kaapelikanaviin Vuoto TAPPIO 0,5% 60 Ulkoilma BY Passed 28 0.006 50000 × 0,15 1260 TEHOKASTA ROOM Latent LÄMMÖN 13330 TEHOKASTA ROOM YHTEENSÄ LÄMMÖN 117755 Ulkoilma YHTEENSÄ LÄMMÖN (laitteistoista) Sensible 28cmm 18 20,4 × (1-0.15) 8740 Latent 28cmm 0,006 50.000 × (1-0.15) 7140 RETURN 0% + RETURN kaapelikanaviin 0% PUMP% + DEUH. % Kaapelikanavien vuotojen tuottoja-PIPE LÄMMÖN GUN GAI KAIKKI YHTEENSÄ LÄMMÖN 133.635 (38TR) Huomautus Monet suunnittelijat eivät kuten tilille suodatus kuormien erikseen. On pitävät hoitaa ilmanvaihto ilman jos ilmanvaihto CMM on suunnittelija on suurempi kuin suodattamalla cmm.one yksinkertaistettua kuormien arvio laskettaessa arkin fir maahan, ensimmäisessä ja kolmannessa kerroksessa television studio-rakennus, ilman soluttautumisen kuormia. huomata, että tällaisessa tapauksessa ei oikeastaan ole soluttautumisen kuin huone on myönteistä painostusta. On kuitenkin soluttautumisen mikä vastaa pakoputken huoneen ilmaan.

Monday, October 5, 2009

History and Evolution of Mechanical Robot - - A Through Research


Robot
A robot is a virtual or mechanical artificial agent. In practice, it is usually an electro-mechanical machine which is guided by computer or electronic programming, and is thus able to do tasks on its own. Another common characteristic is that by its appearance or movements, a robot often conveys a sense that it has intent or agency of its own.

Definitions
The word robot can refer to both physical robots and virtual software agents, but the latter are usually referred to as bots. There is no consensus on which machines qualify as robots, but there is general agreement among experts and the public that robots tend to do some or all of the following: move around, operate a mechanical limb, sense and manipulate their environment, and exhibit intelligent behavior, especially behavior which mimics humans or other animals.

There is conflict about whether the term can be applied to remotely operated devices, as the most common usage implies, or solely to devices which are controlled by their software without human intervention. In South Africa, robot is an informal and commonly used term for a set of traffic lights.

Stories of artificial helpers and companions and attempts to create them have a long history but fully autonomous machines only appeared in the 20th century. The first digitally operated and programmable robot, the Unimate, was installed in 1961 to lift hot pieces of metal from a die casting machine and stack them. Today, commercial and industrial robots are in widespread use performing jobs more cheaply or with greater accuracy and reliability than humans. They are also employed for jobs which are too dirty, dangerous or dull to be suitable for humans. Robots are widely used in manufacturing, assembly and packing, transport, earth and space exploration, surgery, weaponry, laboratory research, and mass production of consumer and industrial goods.

It is difficult to compare numbers of robots in different countries, since there are different definitions of what a "robot" is. The International Organization for Standardization gives a definition of robot in ISO 8373: "an automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose, manipulator programmable in three or more axes, which may be either fixed in place or mobile for use in industrial automation applications." This definition is used by the International Federation of Robotics, the European Robotics Research Network (EURON), and many national standards committees.

The Robotics Institute of America (RIA) uses a broader definition: a robot is a "re-programmable multi-functional manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools, or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks". The RIA subdivides robots into four classes: devices that manipulate objects with manual control, automated devices that manipulate objects with predetermined cycles, programmable and servo-controlled robots with continuous point-to-point trajectories, and robots of this last type which also acquire information from the environment and move intelligently in response.

There is no one definition of robot which satisfies everyone, and many people have their own. For example, Joseph Engelberger, a pioneer in industrial robotics, once remarked: "I can't define a robot, but I know one when I see one." According to Encyclopaedia Britannica, a robot is "any automatically operated machine that replaces human effort, though it may not resemble human beings in appearance or perform functions in a humanlike manner". Merriam-Webster describes a robot as a "machine that looks like a human being and performs various complex acts (as walking or talking) of a human being", or a "device that automatically performs complicated often repetitive tasks", or a "mechanism guided by automatic controls".

Modern robots are usually used in tightly controlled environments such as on assembly lines because they have difficulty responding to unexpected interference. Because of this, most humans rarely encounter robots. However, domestic robots for cleaning and maintenance are increasingly common in and around homes in developed countries, particularly in Japan. Robots can also be found in the military.




Defining characteristics
While there is no single correct definition of "robot" a typical robot will have several or possibly all of the following characteristics.

It is an electric machine which has some ability to interact with physical objects and to be given electronic programming to do a specific task or to do a whole range of tasks or actions. It may also have some ability to perceive and absorb data on physical objects, or on its local physical environment, or to process data, or to respond to various stimuli. This is in contrast to a simple mechanical device such as a gear or a hydraulic press or any other item which has no processing ability and which does tasks through purely mechanical processes and motion.

Mental agency
For robotic engineers, the physical appearance of a machine is less important than the way its actions are controlled. The more the control system seems to have agency of its own, the more likely the machine is to be called a robot. An important feature of agency is the ability to make choices. Higher-level cognitive functions, though, are not necessary, as shown by ant robots.


A clockwork car is never considered a robot.

A remotely operated vehicle is sometimes considered a robot (or telerobot).

A car with an onboard computer, like Bigtrak, which could drive in a programmable sequence, might be called a robot.

A self-controlled car which could sense its environment and make driving decisions based on this information, such as the 1990s driverless cars of Ernst Dickmanns or the entries in the DARPA Grand Challenge, would quite likely be called a robot.

A sentient car, like the fictional KITT, which can make decisions, navigate freely and converse fluently with a human, is usually considered a robot.

Physical agency
However, for many laymen, if a machine appears to be able to control its arms or limbs, and especially if it appears anthropomorphic or zoomorphic (e.g. ASIMO or Aibo), it would be called a robot.


A player piano is rarely characterized as a robot.

A CNC milling machine is very occasionally characterized as a robot.

A factory automation arm is almost always characterized as an industrial robot.

An autonomous wheeled or tracked device, such as a self-guided rover or self-guided vehicle, is almost always characterized as a mobile robot or service robot.

A zoomorphic mechanical toy, like Roboraptor, is usually characterized as a robot.

A mechanical humanoid, like ASIMO, is almost always characterized as a robot, usually as a service robot.

Even for a 3-axis CNC milling machine using the same control system as a robot arm, it is the arm which is almost always called a robot, while the CNC machine is usually just a machine. Having eyes can also make a difference in whether a machine is called a robot, since humans instinctively connect eyes with sentience. However, simply being anthropomorphic is not a sufficient criterion for something to be called a robot. A robot must do something; an inanimate object shaped like ASIMO would not be considered a robot.

Etymology
The word robot was introduced to the public by Czech writer Karel Čapek in his play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots), published in 1920. The play begins in a factory that makes artificial people called robots, but they are closer to the modern ideas of androids, creatures who can be mistaken for humans. They can plainly think for themselves, though they seem happy to serve. At issue is whether the robots are being exploited and the consequences of their treatment.


However, Karel Čapek himself did not coin the word. He wrote a short letter in reference to an etymology in the Oxford English Dictionary in which he named his brother, the painter and writer Josef Čapek, as its actual originator. In an article in the Czech journal Lidové noviny in 1933, he explained that he had originally wanted to call the creatures laboři (from Latin labor, work). However, he did not like the word, and sought advice from his brother Josef, who suggested "roboti". The word robota means literally work, labor or serf labor, and figuratively "drudgery" or "hard work" in Czech and many Slavic languages. Traditionally the robota was the work period a serf had to give for his lord, typically 6 months of the year. Serfdom was outlawed in 1848 in Bohemia, so at the time Čapek wrote R.U.R., usage of the term robota had broadened to include various types of work, but the obsolete sense of "serfdom" would still have been known.

The word robotics, used to describe this field of study, was coined (albeit accidentally) by the science fiction writer Isaac Asimov






Social impact
As robots have become more advanced and sophisticated, experts and academics have increasingly explored the questions of what ethics might govern robots' behavior, and whether robots might be able to claim any kind of social, cultural, ethical or legal rights One scientific team has said that it is possible that a robot brain will exist by 2019. Others predict robot intelligence breakthroughs by 2050. Recent advances have made robotic behavior more sophisticated.



Vernor Vinge has suggested that a moment may come when computers and robots are smarter than humans. He calls this "the Singularity." He suggests that it may be somewhat or possibly very dangerous for humans. This is discussed by a philosophy called Singularitarianism.

In 2009, experts attended a conference to discuss whether computers and robots might be able to acquire any autonomy, and how much these abilities might pose a threat or hazard. They noted that some robots have acquired various forms of semi-autonomy, including being able to find power sources on their own and being able to independently choose targets to attack with weapons. They also noted that some computer viruses can evade elimination and have achieved "cockroach intelligence." They noted that self-awareness as depicted in science-fiction is probably unlikely, but that there were other potential hazards and pitfalls. Various media sources and scientific groups have noted separate trends in differing areas which might together result in greater robotic functionalities and autonomy, and which pose some inherent concerns.

Some experts and academics have questioned the use of robots for military combat, especially when such robots are given some degree of autonomous functions. There are also concerns about technology which might allow some armed robots to be controlled mainly by other robots. The US Navy has funded a report which indicates that as military robots become more complex, there should be greater attention to implications of their ability to make autonomous decisions.[ Some public concerns about autonomous robots have received media attention, especially one robot, EATR, which can continually refuel itself using biomass and organic substances which it finds on battlefields or other local environments.

The Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence has studied this topic in depth and its president has commissioned a study to look at this issue.

Some have suggested a need to build "Friendly AI", meaning that the advances which are already occurring with AI should also include an effort to make AI intrinsically friendly and humane. Several such measures reportedly already exist, with robot-heavy countries such as Japan and South Korea  having begun to pass regulations requiring robots to be equipped with safety systems, and possibly sets of 'laws' akin to Asimov's Three Laws of Robotics. An official report was issued in 2009 by the Japanese government's Robot Industry Policy Committee. Chinese officials and researchers have issued a report suggesting a set of ethical rules, as well as a set of new legal guidelines referred to as "Robot Legal Studies." Some concern has been expressed over a possible occurrence of robots telling apparent falsehood

Technological trends

Overall trends


Japan hopes to have full-scale commercialization of service robots by 2025. Much technological research in Japan is led by Japanese government agencies, particularly the Trade Ministry.

As robots become more advanced, eventually there may be a standard computer operating system designed mainly for robots. Robot Operating System (ROS) is an open-source set of programs being developed at Stanford University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Technical University of Munich, Germany, among others. ROS provides ways to program a robot's navigation and limbs regardless of the specific hardware involved. It also provides high-level commands for items like image recognition and even opening doors. When ROS boots up on a robot's computer, it would obtain data on attributes such as the length and movement of robots' limbs. It would relay this data to higher-level algorithms. Microsoft is also developing a "Windows for robots" system with its Robotics Developer Studio, which has been available since 2007.

New functions and abilities

The Caterpillar Company is making a dump truck which can drive itself without any human operator

Research robots


While most robots today are installed in factories or homes, performing labour or life saving jobs, many new types of robot are being developed in laboratories around the world. Much of the research in robotics focuses not on specific industrial tasks, but on investigations into new types of robot, alternative ways to think about or design robots, and new ways to manufacture them. It is expected that these new types of robot will be able to solve real world problems when they are finally realized.[citation needed]


A microfabricated electrostatic gripper holding some silicon nanowires.Nanorobots: Nanorobotics is the still largely hypothetical technology of creating machines or robots at or close to the scale of a nanometer (10−9 meters). Also known as nanobots or nanites, they would be constructed from molecular machines. So far, researchers have mostly produced only parts of these complex systems, such as bearings, sensors, and Synthetic molecular motors, but functioning robots have also been made such as the entrants to the Nanobot Robocup contest. Researchers also hope to be able to create entire robots as small as viruses or bacteria, which could perform tasks on a tiny scale. Possible applications include micro surgery (on the level of individual cells), utility fog, manufacturing, weaponry and cleaning. Some people have suggested that if there were nanobots which could reproduce, the earth would turn into "grey goo", while others argue that this hypothetical outcome is nonsense.

Soft Robots: Robots with silicone bodies and flexible actuators (air muscles, electroactive polymers, and ferrofluids), controlled using fuzzy logic and neural networks, look and feel different from robots with rigid skeletons, and are capable of different behaviors.

Reconfigurable Robots: A few researchers have investigated the possibility of creating robots which can alter their physical form to suit a particular task, like the fictional T-1000. Real robots are nowhere near that sophisticated however, and mostly consist of a small number of cube shaped units, which can move relative to their neighbours, for example SuperBot. Algorithms have been designed in case any such robots become a reality

A swarm of robots from the Open-source Micro-robotic ProjectSwarm robots: Inspired by colonies of insects such as ants and bees, researchers are modeling the behavior of swarms of thousands of tiny robots which together perform a useful task, such as finding something hidden, cleaning, or spying. Each robot is quite simple, but the emergent behavior of the swarm is more complex. The whole set of robots can be considered as one single distributed system, in the same way an ant colony can be considered a superorganism, exhibiting swarm intelligence. The largest swarms so far created include the iRobot swarm, the SRI/MobileRobots CentiBots project and the Open-source Micro-robotic Project swarm, which are being used to research collective behaviors. Swarms are also more resistant to failure. Whereas one large robot may fail and ruin a mission, a swarm can continue even if several robots fail. This could make them attractive for space exploration missions, where failure can be extremely costly.

Haptic interface robots: Robotics also has application in the design of virtual reality interfaces. Specialized robots are in widespread use in the haptic research community. These robots, called "haptic interfaces" allow touch-enabled user interaction with real and virtual environments. Robotic forces allow simulating the mechanical properties of "virtual" objects, which users can experience through their sense of touch. Haptic interfaces are also used in robot-aided rehabilitati

Varying cultural perceptions


Roughly half of all the robots in the world are in Asia, 32% in Europe, and 16% in North America, 1% in Australasia and 1% in Africa.[59] 30% of all the robots in the world are in Japan. This means that Japan has the most robots in the world out of all the countries, and is in fact leading the world's robotics. Japan is actually said to be the robotic capital of the world.

In Japan and South Korea, ideas of future robots have been mainly positive, and the start of the pro-robotic society there is thought to be possibly due to the famous 'Astro Boy'. Asian societies such as Japan, South Korea, and more recently, China, believe robots to be more equal to humans, having them care for old people, play with or teach children, or replace pets etc. The general view in Asian cultures is that the more robots advance, the better, which is the opposite of the Western belief.

"This is the opening of an era in which human beings and robots can co-exist," says Japanese firm Mitsubishi about one of the many humanistic robots in Japan. South Korea aims to put a robot in every house there by 2015-2020 in order to help catch up technologically with Japan
Western societies are more likely to be against, or even fear the development of robotics, through much media output in movies and literature that they will replace humans. Some believe that the West regards robots as a 'threat' to the future of humans, partly due to religious beliefs about the role of humans and society. Obviously, these boundaries are not clear, but there is a significant difference between the two cultural viewpoints.

Contemporary uses

At present there are 2 main types of robots, based on their use: general-purpose autonomous robots and dedicated robots.

TOPIO, a humanoid robot developed by TOSY that can play ping-pong.Robots can be classified by their specificity of purpose. A robot might be designed to perform one particular task extremely well, or a range of tasks less well. Of course, all robots by their nature can be re-programmed to behave differently, but some are limited by their physical form. For example, a factory robot arm can perform jobs such as cutting, welding, gluing, or acting as a fairground ride, while a pick-and-place robot can only populate printed circuit boards.

General-purpose autonomous robots

General-purpose autonomous robots are robots that can perform a variety of functions independently. General-purpose autonomous robots typically can navigate independently in known spaces, handle their own re-charging needs, interface with electronic doors and elevators and perform other basic tasks. Like computers, general-purpose robots can link with networks, software and accessories that increase their usefulness. They may recognize people or objects, talk, provide companionship, monitor environmental quality, respond to alarms, pick up supplies and perform other useful tasks. General-purpose robots may perform a variety of functions simultaneously or they may take on different roles at different times of day. Some such robots try to mimic human beings and may even resemble people in appearance; this type of robot is called a humanoid robot

Dedicated robots

In 2006, there were an estimated 3,540,000 service robots in use, and an estimated 950,000 industrial robots. A different estimate counted more than one million robots in operation worldwide in the first half of 2008, with roughly half in Asia, 32% in Europe, 16% in North America, 1% in Australasia and 1% in Africa.[69] Industrial and service robots can be placed into roughly two classifications based on the type of job they do. The first category includes tasks which a robot can do with greater productivity, accuracy, or endurance than humans; the second category consists of dirty, dangerous or dull jobs which humans find undesirable.


Increased productivity, accuracy, and endurance
Many factory jobs are now performed by robots. This has led to cheaper mass-produced goods, including automobiles and electronics. Stationary manipulators used in factories have become the largest market for robots. In 2006, there were an estimated 3,540,000 service robots in use, and an estimated 950,000 industrial robots. A different estimate counted more than one million robots in operation worldwide in the first half of 2008, with roughly half in Asia, 32% in Europe, 16% in North America, 1% in Australasia and 1% in Africa.

Some examples of factory robots


Car production: Over the last three decades automobile factories have become dominated by robots. A typical factory contains hundreds of industrial robots working on fully automated production lines, with one robot for every ten human workers. On an automated production line, a vehicle chassis on a conveyor is welded, glued, painted and finally assembled at a sequence of robot stations.

Packaging: Industrial robots are also used extensively for palletizing and packaging of manufactured goods, for example for rapidly taking drink cartons from the end of a conveyor belt and placing them into boxes, or for loading and unloading machining centers.

Electronics: Mass-produced printed circuit boards (PCBs) are almost exclusively manufactured by pick-and-place robots, typically with SCARA manipulators, which remove tiny electronic components from strips or trays, and place them on to PCBs with great accuracy. Such robots can place hundreds of thousands of components per hour, far out-performing a human in speed, accuracy, and reliability.

Automated guided vehicles (AGVs): Mobile robots, following markers or wires in the floor, or using vision or lasers, are used to transport goods around large facilities, such as warehouses, container ports, or hospitals.
Early AGV-Style Robots were limited to tasks that could be accurately defined and had to be performed the same way every time. Very little feedback or intelligence was required, and the robots needed only the most basic exteroceptors (sensors). The limitations of these AGVs are that their paths are not easily altered and they cannot alter their paths if obstacles block them. If one AGV breaks down, it may stop the entire operation.

Interim AGV-Technologies developed that deploy triangulation from beacons or bar code grids for scanning on the floor or ceiling. In most factories, triangulation systems tend to require moderate to high maintenance, such as daily cleaning of all beacons or bar codes. Also, if a tall pallet or large vehicle blocks beacons or a bar code is marred, AGVs may become lost. Often such AGVs are designed to be used in human-free environments.

Newer AGVs such as the Speci-Minder, ADAM, Tug[ and PatrolBot Gofer are designed for people-friendly workspaces. They navigate by recognizing natural features. 3D scanners or other means of sensing the environment in two or three dimensions help to eliminate cumulative errors in dead-reckoning calculations of the AGV's current position. Some AGVs can create maps of their environment using scanning lasers with simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) and use those maps to navigate in real time with other path planning and obstacle avoidance algorithms. They are able to operate in complex environments and perform non-repetitive and non-sequential tasks such as transporting photomasks in a semiconductor lab, specimens in hospitals and goods in warehouses. For dynamic areas, such as warehouses full of pallets, AGVs require additional strategies. Only a few vision-augmented systems currently claim to be able to navigate reliably in such environments.

Potential problems


Fears and concerns about robots have been repeatedly expressed in a wide range of books and films. A common theme is the development of a master race of conscious and highly intelligent robots, motivated to take over or destroy the human race. (See The Terminator, Runaway, Blade Runner, Robocop, the Replicators in Stargate, the Cylons in Battlestar Galactica, The Matrix, THX-1138, and I, Robot.) Some fictional robots are programmed to kill and destroy; others gain superhuman intelligence and abilities by upgrading their own software and hardware. Examples of popular media where the robot becomes evil are 2001: A Space Odyssey, Red Planet, ... Another common theme is the reaction, sometimes called the "uncanny valley", of unease and even revulsion at the sight of robots that mimic humans too closely.ankenstein (1818), often called the first science fiction novel, has become synonymous with the theme of a robot or monster advancing beyond its creator. In the TV show, Futurama, the robots are portrayed as humanoid figures that live alongside humans, not as robotic butlers. They still work in industry, but these robots carry out daily lives.

Manuel De Landa has noted that "smart missiles" and autonomous bombs equipped with artificial perception can be considered robots, and they make some of their decisions autonomously. He believes this represents an important and dangerous trend in which humans are handing over important decisions to machines.

Marauding robots may have entertainment value, but unsafe use of robots constitutes an actual danger. A heavy industrial robot with powerful actuators and unpredictably complex behavior can cause harm, for instance by stepping on a human's foot or falling on a human. Most industrial robots operate inside a security fence which separates them from human workers, but not all. Two robot-caused deaths are those of Robert Williams and Kenji Urada. Robert Williams was struck by a robotic arm at a casting plant in Flat Rock, Michigan on January 25, 1979. 37-year-old Kenji Urada, a Japanese factory worker, was killed in 1981. Urada was performing routine maintenance on the robot, but neglected to shut it down properly, and was accidentally pushed into a grinding machine.

History


Many ancient mythologies include artificial people, such as the mechanical servants built by the Greek god Hephaestus (Vulcan to the Romans), the clay golems of Jewish legend and clay giants of Norse legend, and Galatea, the mythical statue of Pygmalion that came to life. In Greek drama, Deus Ex Machina was contrived as a dramatic device that usually involved lowering a deity by wires into the play to solve a seemingly impossible problem.

In the 4th century BC, the Greek mathematician Archytas of Tarentum postulated a mechanical steam-operated bird he called "The Pigeon". Hero of Alexandria (10–70 AD) created numerous user-configurable automated devices, and described machines powered by air pressure, steam and water. Su Song built a clock tower in China in 1088 featuring mechanical figurines that chimed the hours.

Al-Jazari's programmable humanoid robotsAl-Jazari (1136–1206), a Muslim inventor during the Artuqid dynasty, designed and constructed a number of automated machines, including kitchen appliances, musical automata powered by water, and the first programmable humanoid robots in 1206.[citation needed] The robots appeared as four musicians on a boat in a lake, entertaining guests at royal drinking parties. His mechanism had a programmable drum machine with pegs (cams) that bumped into little levers that operated percussion instruments. The drummer could be made to play different rhythms and different drum patterns by moving the pegs to different locations.[citation needed


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